Abstract The study was conducted to identify gender role and responsibility in agricultural production and assess constraints that influence gender division of labor in agricultural production in Gemechis, Oda Bultum and Daro Lebu districts of West Hararghe Zone. The study used a multi-stage sampling method. Primary data were collected from a total of 142 household-heads (54 from Gemechis, 50 from Oda Bultum and 38 from Daro Lebu Ddistricts) using semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the collected data. Garett ranking techniques was also used to rank constraints of gender participation in agricultural activities. The result of the study indicated that both men and women were participating in agricultural activities including land preparation, sowing seed, fertilizer application, weeding, harvesting, threshing, transporting grain to market, storing, poultry production, milking, poultry production, barn cleaning, herding, supplying water and fodder to livestock. Most of these activities were performed jointly except ploughing which was done by men and milking of cow which was mostly done by women. In all livestock species the roles of women were high than men in feeding, milking, barn cleaning, management and marketing. Workload at home, social factor (restricting women on reproductive and men on productive work) and shortage of land were some major constraints of both men and women in fully participating in agricultural activities. Women’s double burdens in the household chores limited their participation in decision making pertaining to farming related issues, meeting and attending training program on agriculture. Therefore, it could be safe to conclude that working with all rural farmers in the study area in making men aware about the benefit of women’s empowerment in agricultural production is imperative.
Keywords: Activities, Agriculture, Gender, Men, Role, Women