Global Research Journal of Fishery Science and Aquaculture

Influence of Phytochemical Constituents of Garlic Extract (Allium Sativum) on the Treatment of Bacterial and Fungal Infections in Clarias Gariepinus

Abstract:  Bacteria and fungi are among the most common pathogens that infect fish, leading to a significant economic lost in aquaculture. These microbial pathogens have also been reported to be of serious public health concern to humans. This study determined the influence of phytochemical constituent of garlic extract (Allium sativum) on the treatment of bacterial and fungal infection in Clarias gariepinus. Garlic bulbs were purchased from Kure market in Minna Niger State. The bulbs were peeled, washed under running tap water and pulverized using cold maceration method. Quantitative analysis was carried out to determine phytochemical compound (flavonoids, phenol, saponins, alkaloid and tannins) present in the extract. A total of thirty infected Clarias gariepinus were sampled from randomly selected fish farms. The total Bacteria, Coliform and Fungal count were determined and characteristically distinct colonies obtained were sub-cultured onto fresh agar plates repeatedly to obtain pure cultures which were then stored on appropriate agar slants for identification and further analysis. Bacterial species isolated were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Aqueous extraction of Allium sativum bulbs yielded 37.69g equivalent to 9.4% percentage yield. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Phenols (205.96 mg/100g), Flavonoids (62.85 mg/100g), Saponin (55.22 mg/100g), Tannins (9.39 mg/100g) and Alkaloids (7.72 mg/100g). The total bacterial count of infected Clarias gariepinus samples range from 6x104 – 37x104 CFU/gwith average count of 18.73 x 104 CFU/g while the coliform count ranged from 1x103 – 23x103 CFU/g and had an average count of 9.00 x 103 CFU/g. No fungal contamination was observed in this study. Bacteria isolated from infected Clarias gariepinus include members of the genus Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Escherichia. Data indicated that the aqueous extracts of the Allium sativum bulbs had antimicrobial activity against suspected Clarias gariepinus pathogens.The antimicrobial activity was concentration dependent as inhibition zones increases with increasing concentration of the extract. With significantly highest antibacterial activity observed at 1000mg/ml. The results of this study indicate that garlic extract (Allium sativum) shows antibacterial potential in vitro. These shows that Allium sativum bulbs extracts are potentially effective as natural alternatives for the treatment of infections in Clarias gariepinus


Keywords: Influence, Phytochemical Constituents, Garlic Extract, Bacterial and Fungal Infection, Clarias Gariepinus