International Journal of Arts and Humanities

ISSN 2360-7998

Appreciating National Cohesion in Fostering National Security Kenya

Abstract: One of the major challenges humans continue to face at the end of the twentieth century is the achievement of sustainable peace and security. Africa's emerging security challenges are complex, some are predominantly related to governance and/or intra-state conflicts, while the continent's disputed national borders remain a potential source of instability. In defining national security, there has been a notable departure from the state centric view that focused on sovereignty, territorial integrity, and aggression from external threats. The promulgation of a new constitution in 2010 marked the culmination of changes in Kenya's political scene, transforming the political and administrative structures that shaped the country's national security. The democratisation process also changed the security concept from primarily the traditional state centered to the people centered which identifies the individual as the key referent for security. In East Africa, the persistence of ethnocentric conflicts arising from undemocratic government practices, resource based competition, and terrorism continues to undermine security, national cohesion, and integration. National security and national cohesion take into account a wide range of factors that contribute to stability or stimulate conflict. The national security policy is framed based on the national purpose, aim, and defined objectives. Despite the formation of the National Cohesion and Integration Commission and other bodies mandated to enhance national cohesion, this study found that a high number of respondents stated that they have achieved little so far.

Keywords: Cohesion, Security, National development, Social capital