Spring International Engineering Research Journal

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The Development of a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Milling Machine

Enokela JA and Anfofun OI

Corresponding author:  Jonathan AE  :Received: 01.04.2022 | Accepted: 08.04.2022



The arrangement of components on a well mapped-out printed circuit board (PCB) is important to the construction of a circuit board. A Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) drilling machine provides an advanced procedure in building of circuits, thereby relatively reducing the cost of production. In this work the design and construction of an automatic drilling machine for point to point drilling on PCB is presented. The system consists of two main parts: a mechanical setup that can move in X, Y and Z axes, and a software program that controls the overall operation of the whole system. The co-ordinates of proposed holes are to be provided in a given graphical window on the computer. The machine locates the respective co-ordinates using lead screw mechanism which is driven by A4988 stepper motor driver that is controlled by Arduino Garble (GRBL) controller using G-code. The PCB sketch which is stored as an image is converted to G-code using Inkscape graphics software. A G-code sender (GRBL controller) is then used to send the code to the machine through USB cable. The Garble (GRBL) module connects to a motor driver which drives the stepper motors. The spindle motor connects to the control board (GRBL v4) through a relay while a USB cable is used to connect the CNC controller (Engraver master) to the CNC shield (GRBL v4). Connection is established between the PC and the Garble (GBRL) board by opening USB port on the software and setting the baud rate as required. A three-axis machine was successfully constructed. The machine decodes the G-code instructions from the PC, and then monitors the motor movement which produces the required trace. The function of engraving the image on the PCB was achieved. The low cost of construction of the machine and ease of operation make it suitable for small scale manufacturers and hobbyists.


Keywords: Drilling, Milling, Engraving, G-Code, Garble, Computerized Numerical Control