Corresponding author:     Allison BR :      Received: 7/6./2022 | Accepted:  8/6./2022 |  

Abstract: Over the past years Nigerians have been experiencing different forms of violence, the major one being inter-ethnic or tribal conflicts. The first tribal conflicts since the return to civilian government occurred in May 30th –June 9th1999 in the Warri region of Delta state where an estimated twelve to two hundred people were killed and over 6000 forced to flee their homes. Also, in July 18th 1999 an estimated 120people died and many more were made homeless in ethnic clashes between OPC and Hausa traders in Sagamu. Similarly, the ethnic clashes on 25th November 1999, between OPC and Hausa traders in Lagos, where several people lost their lives and many more fled their homes. A structured questionnaire was used for personal interviews, a focus group discussion guideline was used for focus group discussions, listed discussion topics guide was used for an in depth interviews with key informants, a check list was used for observation. A total of 105 respondents participated in the research. The findings revealed that women had been working together in groups and had made significant achievements in improvement of their individual standards of living and in development of Wukari local government area. Most of the respondents were actively involved in self-help groups work. The study found out that the inter-ethnic conflicts in the area had negatively affected participation of women in livelihood activities. Most of the respondents had experienced inter-ethnic conflicts and were unanimous that no livelihood activities could take place in times of conflicts. People were displaced from their homes and lost their properties. The findings also proved that fear and tension in Wukari, will permanently affect the relationship between women from the warring communities. The major recommendation was that the government should intensify its efforts in restoration of peace and unity in the area. Future studies should address a permanent solution to the inter-ethnic conflicts in wukari and in the whole country.

 

Keywords: Inter-Ethnic, Livelihood, Women Participation, Activities.

Publish by IJAH 2022.