Accepted 14th April, 2014
The complications of Diabetes Mellitus, a group of metabolic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which glucose is underutilized, producing hyperglycemia are far less common and less severe in people who have well controlled blood levels. In chronic or uncontrolled situations, insufficient levels of antioxidants or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes cause oxidative stress which occur due to over increase in production of free radicals or impaired compensatory response to antioxidant defense system. Catalase is an enzyme present in most of the aerobic cells; it protects the cells from oxidative stress by catalysing the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in two types of reactions depending on its peroxidative and catalytic activities. This study compared the level of the plasma catalase enzyme in type 1 and type 2 chronic diabetic patients to diabetic patients that have suffered the disease for less than 10 years with respect to control subjects. A total of 468 subjects were used for this study. This comprised of 90 diabetic subjects of type 1, 110 of type 2 that have suffered the disease for over ten years and 110 apparently healthy subjects that never had hyperglycemia and with HBAIC value of < 6.0%. The study also included 68 type 1 and 90 type 2 diabetic patients that have suffered the diseases for less than 10 years. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for this study. The result showed a mean + S.D plasma catalase level of 22.46 + 14.94 pg/ml, 26.60 + 10.65 pg/ml and 43.10 + 23.28 pg/ml for diabetic type 1, type 2 and control subjects respectively. A plasma catalase level of 25.50 + 13.15 pg/ml and 28.48 + 12.72 pg/ml for diabetic type 1 and type 2 respectively for diabetic subjects that have suffered the disease for less than 10years. Analysis of the result, showed that there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between the levels of the enzyme in type 1 and type 2 of both chronic and non chronic diabetic patients, but significantly differs from the values obtained for non diabetic, apparently healthy subjects at this 95% confidence level. This showed that Plasma catalase enzyme level is decreased in diabetic patients (chronic and non chronic) in Yenegoa, Bayelsa State of Nigeria with respect to non diabetic (control) Subjects.
Keywords: Catalase, Antioxidants, Chronic, Diabetes mellitus, Hyperglycaemia, Oxidative stress, immunoassay, Glycation.