Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development

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Nutrient Balance on Crop-Livestock Mixed Operations in Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture of Kabul, Afghanistan

1Zikrullah Safi, 2Wakil Ahmad Sarhadi, 4Khal Mohd. Ahmadzai, 3Mohd. Alem Alemi



Accepted 15th January, 2015


Managing the environmental risk associated with mixed farming operation in the urban and peri urban areas of Kabul at present is a significant challenge. Despite the increasing demand for crop and animal production in the world, the excess build up of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and organic carbon (Corg) in the soil of inhabited areas commonly considered as a source of ground and surface water contamination. Livestock feed and using nutrient rich inter-city wastes with subsequent reduced products, mostly add into this build-up of N, P, K and C in the soil. The degree of differences between input inflow and outflow in the farm defines the magnitude of potential environmental contamination. To monitor nutrient inflow and outflow, this study was conducted in urban peri-urban areas of Kabul for six months from Apr-Oct 2008. The nutrients N, P, K and C balance was constructed for four crop-livestock operated households to estimate the whole-farm surpluses of nutrient and to investigate the possibility for reducing upsurge. Our study showed Input/output ratio of 1.2:1, 4.1:1, 1.9:1 and 3.2:1 for N; 0.8:1, 1.9:1, 0.8:1 and 1.8:1 for P; 4.4:1, 6.6:1, 9.4:1, and 20.4:1 for K, and 3,312.0:1, 117.8:1, 361.4:1, and 312.0:1 for C in the household one (HH-1), household two (HH-2), household three (HH-3) and household four (HH-4), respectively. It has been found that, nutrient inputs (N, P, K and C) via feedstuff and crop inputs on crop-livestock mixed operation were greater than nutrient in the products. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. For safe and sound crop-livestock mixed farming. Strategies must be implemented, that address the commonly experienced balances of nutrient.


Keywords: Nutrient balance; Crop-livestock mixed farming, Kabul City, Afghanistan