International Journal of Agricultural Research and Reviews

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Organic matter and nutrient (NPKC) losses via surface run-off in Urban Agriculture (UA) of Kabul, Afghanistan

1Zikrullah Safi, 3Ghulam Mohd. Bahram,4Khal Mohd. Ahmadzai 2Mohd. Alem Alemi



Accepted 13th January, 2016


Kabul the capital city of Afghanistan is located at elevation of 18, 00 m a s l. with the current population of 4.2 millions. The constructed areas have been encircled by urban fields. Climate is highly continental; rainfall always contributes water as a supplemental irrigation to agricultural crops. Sedimentations in streams, water courses, and in Kabul River are often observed. Urban fields have been regularly used for fresh vegetables and cereals in the rotation for food and feed production. Agricultural productions rely on fertilizers, but use of night soil and city bio-wastes are in abundance. Torrential rainfall is observed as a main source of soil erosion. The run-off degrades environment by contamination of surface water, underground water, Kabul River and other low laying water bodies.  A study on “Organic matter and nutrient (NPKC) losses via run-off in the Urban Agriculture (UA) of Kabul” was conducted on 2012-2015 to quantify NPK and Co losses via run-off in the urban areas of Kabul. Four endemic crops of Kabul Province were planted in the rotation. The results showed neglect erosion according to the universal soil losses equation. The total average soil in two farms (n= 27) in the duration of four years were 248.48 kg ha-1. Wheat and millet had 14.46 and 15.11%, barley and maize had 21.55, and 21.02% soil, respectively. In control plots of college farm 23.89%, Guzargah farm 30.86% and combined losses in both farms were (27.86%). The average total N, P, K losses were 0.19 Kg ha-1, 0.013 kg ha-1, 0.27 kg ha-1, and Co 2.61kg ha-1, respectively. Statistically the variation showed significant differences (p<0.05). Finally, based on our findings, few recommendations have been suggested to scientists, farmers and policy makers.


Keywords: Run-off, soil erosion, environmental pollution, Kabul city, Afghanistan.