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Organic matter and nutrient losses via run-off (March/December, 2016) in Urban Agriculture of Kabul, Afghanistan.
Zikrullah Safia, Ghulam Mohammad Bahramc, Mohammad Alem Alemib
Accepted 17th March, 2017
Kabul, bowl like capital city of Afghanistan is located at elevation of 18, 00 m a s l. with the current population of 4.2 million. The constructed areas have been encircled by urban fields. Climate is highly continental; rainfall always contributes water as a supplemental irrigation to agricultural crops. Sedimentations in streams, water courses, and in Kabul River are often observed. Urban fields have been regularly used for fresh vegetables and cereals in the rotation for food and feed production. Agriculture productions rely on fertilizers, but use of night soil and city bio-wastes are in abundance. Torrential rainfall is often observed as a main source of soil erosion. The run-off degrades environment by contamination of surface water, underground water, Kabul River and other low laying water bodies. A study on “Organic matter and nutrient (NPKC) losses via run-off in the Urban Agriculture (UA) of Kabul”, was conducted (March-December, 2016) to quantify soil and nutrient losses via run-off in urban areas of Kabul. Four endemic crops of Kabul Province were planted in the rotation. The results showed neglect erosion according to the universal soil loss equation. The total Monthly average soil losses in two farms (n= 30) were 2.52 kg ha-1. Maize and wheat plots had higher soil losses (19.30 and 18.52%), respectively. Barley and millet had lesser soil losses (15.37, and 12. 49%), respectively. Control plots of both farms showed 17.65% soil losses. The average total N, P, K losses were neglected due to low rainfall and short period of study, statistically the variation of soil losses under different cropping system was not significant (p >0.05). Lastly, based on our findings, few recommendations have been suggested to scientists, farmers and policy makers.
Keywords: Run-off, Soil erosion, Kabul urban area, Afghanistan.