Global Journal of Food Science and Technology

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Physico-chemical properties and micronutrients of whole wheat flour partially substituted with cashew apple powder

Offia Olua, Blessing I. and Onwubiko, Glory C.



Accepted 28th May, 2015


Cashew apples were sorted after proper washing, sliced, dried at 65oC and milled in a blender to produce cashew apple powder (CAP). The CAP were used at different levels of whole wheat flour substitution to produce composite flours in the ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 75:25 and 0:100 whole wheat flour (WWF) and CAP respectively. The composite flour samples were further analyzed for their proximate composition, functional properties and some micronutrients using standard methods of analysis. Sample 0:100 (WWF: CAP) had the highest fibre and ash values (6.25%) and (2.70%) while sample 80:20 (WWF: CAP) had the least fibre (2.50%) and sample 100:0 (WWF: CAP) recorded the least ash content (1.99%). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) existed between the ash content of sample 90:10 (WWF: CAP) and 75:25 (WWF: CAP).  In terms of protein content, the values decreased as the level of substitution increased from 10.54% for sample 100:0 (WWF: CAP) to 1.93% for sample 0:100 (WWF: CAP). Sample 75:25 had the highest fat content (11.40%) which did not differ significantly (p>0.05) with sample 90:10 (10.25%), however, sample 0:100 had the least fat content (4.60%). The samples showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in bulk density as the level of substitution increased except sample 0:100 which had 0.63kg/m3, water absorption capacity(WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were highest in sample 90:10 (2.50g/ml) and (1.94g/ml) respectively. Sample 0:100 had the least WAC (1.20g/ml) and OAC (1.16g/ml). The 100% CAP had no values for foam capacity (14.25%) and gelation temperature (79oC). The vit. C content of samples increased as the level of CAP substitution increased from 5.1(mg/100g) for sample 100:0 to 42.83(mg/100g) for sample 0:100. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the iron and phosphorus contents of the flour samples with sample 90:10 having the highest values of 0.19% and 0.97% respectively.


Keywords: cashew apple powder, whole wheat flour, proximate, functional