Accepted 26th November, 2018.
Meat is a major source of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Meat preservation methods commonly used to inhibit growth of pathogensand spoilage microorganisms in meat include heat treatment, preservative salts, irradiation, drying, refrigeration and smoking, however, there is little information available on the novel application of garlic extract as meat preservative. The aim of this study was to determine if garlic (Allium sativum) has antimicrobial activity against pathogens and spoilage bacteria commonly found to contaminate meat.The antimicrobial activity of garlic ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were determined against the following bacteria standards and isolates obtained from meat samples; Bacillus cereus(ATCC 11778), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 72225671), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli(ATCC 25922) and Campylobacter spp.isolated from meat. Beef swabs and Chicken rinse-washes were obtained from slaughter and sale points in Nairobi County with the aim of isolating pathogenic microorganisms. Sub-culturing was done on selective media and subsequently followed by biochemical- and geno-typing with specific primers for identification. Susceptability of microoorganism to ethyl acetate garlic extract was carried out using agar well diffusion method.There was no significant difference in the total percentage number of E.coli from Dagoretti abattoirs (30%), Dagoretti butcheries (23.3%), Kawangware butcheries (23.3%) and Pangani butcheries (30%), (P = 0.919. Df value =3). .However, there was a significant difference in the percentage of E. coli at Burma market (27.8%), Kariorkor market (58.3%) and City market (55.6%), (P = 0.0418. Df value =3). There was also a significant difference in the percentage of Campylobacter species at Burma market (67.2 %), Kariorkor market (8.2 %) and City market (33.3%), (P = 0.045, Df value =3).. The novel application of garlic ethyl acetate extract in meat preservation has great potential for use for decontaminationand preservation of meat for extending the shelf life of fresh meat and enhancement of safety against pathogens of public health concern.
Keywords: Garlic extracts, antimicrobial activity,bacterial pathogens, spoilage bacteria