Accepted 24th June, 2020.
This study was conducted to objectively determine the physical and chemical characteristics of soils and their classification from farmer field sites in Torit County, Eastern Equatoria State, South Sudan. A total of 16 farmer field sites were randomly chosen for collection and the soil samples were taken at the top soil surface 20cm depth. The collected soil samples were analyzed for particle size distribution, pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ from saturation extract. The exchangeable cations like Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ by neutral ammonium acetate extract, cation exchange capacity, in addition, ESP were also determined. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed according to standard procedures. Results showed that the textural classes were sandy loam, and sandy clay loam. Soil pH was generally, slightly acidic, natural and slightly alkaline in nature (Mean = 6.73), low and medium in CEC and medium in organic matter, high Mg and K contents. The available Phosphorus at the study sites was low in almost all soil samples. The results of classification the soil base on degree of alkalinity (ESP), degree of salinity (EC) and pH indicate that all samples from the sites were normal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to focus attention on the maintaining soil fertility. Frequent awareness and training programs for farmers should be undertaken to enable them to know the chemical composition and quality of soils for sustainable crop production in the studied soils and application of organic matter to improve the overall fertility of the soil.
Keywords: Physical properties, soluble cations, Exchangeable cations, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP).