Accepted 7th October, 2014
Brucellosis is especially caused by brucella melitensis. It remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases that can seriously affect the wellbeing of animals and humans. The disease is caused by diverse Brucella species of which Brucella abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis are highly pathogenic for humans. The possible sources of infections include all infected tissues, aborted fetuses, fetal fluids, vaginal discharges, cultures and potentially contaminated materials. The nature aspects of the pathogenesis of the diseases lie on the presence of the bacteria in the cells and employing various methods to survive in the phagocytic cells. The diseases can be transmitted from infected host to susceptible animals in direct and indirect contacts. But the most common mode of transmission is sexual contact. Various methods are employed for the diagnosis of brucellosis including microscopic examination, culture methods, serological and molecular biology. Public health importance of brucellosis is much related to the infected animal species from which human transmission occurs. The economic importance of brucellosis depends up on the species of animal affected. It can cause considerable losses in cattle as a result of abortion and reduction in milk yield. Most literature address control of B. abortus infection by vaccinating young female animals. The most rational approach for preventing human brucellosis is the control and elimination of the diseases in animal reservoir and health education of the public working at high risk area.
Keywords: Brucellosis, Economic Importance, Public Health Significance