Accepted 27th May, 2019.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia, which leads to many complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, eye problems and many others. High glycaemic index foods have been implicated in post-prandial hyperglycaemia, the control of which might be helpful in the management of diabetes mellitus. Glycaemic index is a measure of power of food to raise blood glucose level after its ingestion. In the present study, lowering effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum leaves (AEOGL) and its acute toxicity were investigated using white albino rats. The result of oral acute toxicity (LD50) revealed that the AEOGL is relatively safe by having oral LD50greater than 5000mg/Kg body weight. Co-administration of AEOGL and food, and administration of AEOGL before and after food were investigated to know the best order of treatment. On the glucose response curve, AEOGL brought the blood glucose level back to the baseline before the expiration of 2-hour period of investigation. The blood glucose level was still above the baseline in the subjects treated with meal only without the AEOGL at the end of 2-hour period of investigation. Delaying the ingestion of food for five minutes after administration of AEOGL brought the glucose response curve to the baseline fastest. On the lowering the glycaemic index of food, all the orders of administration of AEOGL and food lower the glycaemic index of the food significantly (p > 0.05) when compare to the standard foods only (Starch and glucose separately). Delaying the ingestion of food for five minutes after AEOGL administration lowers the GI best. It lowers the GI of the starch from 82.11% to 19.51%. This strategy can be employed in the control and management of diabetes.
Keywords: Glycaemic index, Diabetes mellitus, Aqueous extract, Ocimum gratissimum, blood glucose, Acute toxicity.