Accepted 28th May, 2015
Cashew apples were sorted after proper washing, sliced, dried at 65oC and milled in a blender to produce cashew apple powder (CAP). The CAP were used at different levels of whole wheat flour substitution to produce composite flours in the ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 75:25 and 0:100 whole wheat flour (WWF) and CAP respectively. The composite flour samples were further analyzed for their proximate composition, functional properties and some micronutrients using standard methods of analysis. Sample 0:100 (WWF: CAP) had the highest fibre and ash values (6.25%) and (2.70%) while sample 80:20 (WWF: CAP) had the least fibre (2.50%) and sample 100:0 (WWF: CAP) recorded the least ash content (1.99%). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) existed between the ash content of sample 90:10 (WWF: CAP) and 75:25 (WWF: CAP). In terms of protein content, the values decreased as the level of substitution increased from 10.54% for sample 100:0 (WWF: CAP) to 1.93% for sample 0:100 (WWF: CAP). Sample 75:25 had the highest fat content (11.40%) which did not differ significantly (p>0.05) with sample 90:10 (10.25%), however, sample 0:100 had the least fat content (4.60%). The samples showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in bulk density as the level of substitution increased except sample 0:100 which had 0.63kg/m3, water absorption capacity(WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were highest in sample 90:10 (2.50g/ml) and (1.94g/ml) respectively. Sample 0:100 had the least WAC (1.20g/ml) and OAC (1.16g/ml). The 100% CAP had no values for foam capacity (14.25%) and gelation temperature (79oC). The vit. C content of samples increased as the level of CAP substitution increased from 5.1(mg/100g) for sample 100:0 to 42.83(mg/100g) for sample 0:100. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the iron and phosphorus contents of the flour samples with sample 90:10 having the highest values of 0.19% and 0.97% respectively.
Keywords: cashew apple powder, whole wheat flour, proximate, functional