Accepted 16th October, 2019.
Previous considerations of health effects attributable to air pollution exposure have been extensively assessed. Current study focused on reviewing the literature to determine association between prolonged dust outbreaks and respiratory dysfunction, independent of other risk factors as smoking habit, mining industry or in any other dusty occupation with a group of local controls who were not exposed. Frequent long-term dust exposure produced by global warming, climate changes, desertification, and other environmental factors, and its respiratory health effects correlated with the duration and number of dust storm days, composition of dusts whether heavy metals and microorganisms in atmospheric dust, particulate air pollution, accumulation of atmospheric dust in soil and water, precipitation, wind velocity, temperature, and geography region is discussed. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate on human clearance rates, physical and chemical properties, biological toxicity, distribution and adverse effects of dust on lung, and changes of lung function. In addition to continuous monitoring, public health interventions and preventing the mechanism of generation process of air pollution locally according to its cause, we need to set design regional public health agencies to research on chemical constituents, its metrics, deposition fractions of inhaled dusts, as well as degree of pollution and implementing strategies for environmental protection measures to control them. In this review, the results of different epidemiological and toxicological studies on regional air quality are summarized. Understanding the geographic variations of air pollution and their intervention modeling would enable us to construct national and global methods strategies for improving pollution control and reducing burden of pulmonary disease.
Keywords: Long-term dust exposure, pollutants generated from the dust compounds, epidemiology, components, distribution, health side effects