Abstract

 

Accepted 7th July, 2020.

 

Schistosomiasis or Bilharziasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma and remains a public health problem in many developing countries in the tropics and subtropics. Though Nigeria is endemic for the disease, only limited mapping survey has been done before 2013. This study was carried out across 19 States and the Federal Capital Territory to provide a comprehensive baseline data on schistosomiasis for targeted interventions. The data presented were obtained from standardized school surveys of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni carried out between 2013 and 2015. Midstream Urine and stool samples were collected in universal specimen bottles from 108,472 pupils. Urine samples were tested for haematuria using Combi-9® reagent strip and examined for schistosome eggs using urine filtration and sedimentation techniques. Stool samples were analysed using the Kato-Katz technique. Out of the 108,472 pupils sampled, 10,349 (9.5%) were infected with schistosomes, the highest prevalence occurred in Niger State 1,879(26.1%), followed by Kebbi State 1,062(21.9%) and FCT 204(20.3%). Lowest values were recorded in Rivers and Akwa Ibom States with prevalence of 7(0.1%) and 22(0.3%) respectively. S. haematobium 8,486 (82%) was the predominant species in the survey compared to S. mansoni 1,863 (18%) The prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest among those who engaged in swimming activity 1,759 (17.0%), followed by those who play in water 1,169 (11.3%). Males 1,255 (12.13%) were more infected than females 683 (6.60%) while pupils of age group 11-16 years were more infected than 5-10 years (P>0.05). The findings revealed that the overall prevalence was within the low risk range (9.5%), although data captured by LGA showed high levels of prevalence in some LGAs of some States. Nigeria is endemic for schistosomiasis and scale-up of appropriate mass administration of medicines and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions will facilitate the elimination of the disease in the country.

 

Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Epidemiological factors, Transmission, Nigeria,